Simultaneous Translation

Simultaneous Translation


Fixed Policy

  • (Wait-k) STACL: Simultaneous Translation with Integrated Anticipation and Controllable Latency (2018.Oct), ACL 2019, M. Ma et al. [arxiv] [project]
  • Efficient Wait-k Models for Simultaneous Machine Translation (2020.May), INTERSPEECH 2020, M. Elbayad et al. [arxiv]

Adaptive Policy

  • (MMA) Monotonic Multihead Attention (2019.Sep), ICLR 2020, X. Ma et al. [arxiv] [paper] [code]
  • (MILk) Monotonic Infinite Lookback Attention for Simultaneous Machine Translation (2019.Jun), ACL 2019, N. Arivazhagan et al. [arxiv]
  • (MoCHA) Monotonic Chunkwise Attention (2017.Dec), ICLR 2018, C. Chiu et al. [arxiv] [code]
  • Online and Linear-Time Attention by Enforcing Monotonic Alignments (2017.Apr), ICML 2017, C. Raffel et al. [arxiv]
  • Can neural machine translation do simultaneous translation? (2016.Jun), K. Cho et al. [arxiv]
  • Learning to Translate in Real-time with Neural Machine Translation, EACL 2017, J. Gu et al. [arxiv]
  • Incremental Decoding and Training Methods for Simultaneous Translation in Neural Machine Translation, NAACL 2018, F. Dalvi et al. [arxiv]
  • Simultaneous Translation with Flexible Policy via Restricted Imitation Learning (2019.Jun), ACL short 2019, B. Zheng et al. [arxiv]
  • Simpler and Faster Learning of Adaptive Policies for Simultaneous Translation (2019.Sep), EMNLP short 2019, B. Zheng et al. [arxiv]
  • DuTongChuan: Context-aware Translation Model for Simultaneous Interpreting (2019.Jul) 2019, H. Xiong et al. [arxiv]
  • A General Framework for Adaptation of Neural Machine Translation to Simultaneous Translation (2019.Nov), AACL 2020, Y. Chen et al. [arxiv]
  • Simultaneous Translation Policies: From Fixed to Adaptive (2020.Apr), ACL Short 2020, B. Zheng et al. [arxiv]
  • Learning Adaptive Segmentation Policy for Simultaneous Translation, EMNLP 2020, R. Zhang et al.
  • Learning Coupled Policies for Simultaneous Machine Translation using Imitation Learning (2020.Feb) 2020, P. Arthur et al. [arxiv]
  • Simultaneous Neural Machine Translation using Connectionist Temporal Classification (2019.Nov) 2019, K. Chousa et al. [arxiv]

Allow Correction

  • Re-translation versus Streaming for Simultaneous Translation (2020.Apr), IWSLT-research 2020, N. Arivazhagan et al. [arxiv]
  • Re-Translation Strategies For Long Form, Simultaneous, Spoken Language Translation (2019.Dec), ICASSP 2020, N. Arivazhagan et al. [arxiv]
  • Faster Re-translation Using Non-Autoregressive Model For Simultaneous Neural Machine Translation (2020.Dec) 2020, H. Han et al. [arxiv] [code]
  • Opportunistic Decoding with Timely Correction for Simultaneous Translation (2020.May), ACL short 2020, R. Zheng et al. [arxiv]



  • SimulSpeech: End-to-End Simultaneous Speech to Text Translation, ACL 2020, Y. Ren et al.
  • Streaming Simultaneous Speech Translation with Augmented Memory Transformer (2020.Oct) 2020, X. Ma et al. [arxiv]
  • Dynamic Transcription for Low-latency Speech Translation, INTERSPEECH 2016, J. Niehues et al. [paper]
  • Low-Latency Neural Speech Translation (2018.Aug), INTERSPEECH 2018, J. Niehues et al. [arxiv]
  • Low Latency ASR for Simultaneous Speech Translation (2020.Mar) 2020, T. Son et al. [arxiv]
  • Multimedia Simultaneous Translation System for Minority Language Communication with Mandarin, INTERSPEECH 2019, S. Huang et al. [paper]


  • Fluent and Low-latency Simultaneous Speech-to-Speech Translation with Self-adaptive Training (2020.Oct), EMNLP Findings 2020, R. Zheng et al. [arxiv] [project] [review]
  • SimulMT to SimulST: Adapting Simultaneous Text Translation to End-to-End Simultaneous Speech Translation (2020.Nov), AACL-IJCNLP 2020, X. Ma et al. [arxiv] [paper]
  • Simultaneous Speech-to-Speech Translation System with Neural Incremental ASR, MT, and TTS (2020.Nov) 2020, K. Sudoh et al. [arxiv]
  • SimulS2S: End-to-End Simultaneous Speech to Speech Translation (2019.Sep), withdrawal ICLR, C. Zhang et al. [paper]


Research paper

  • Neural Simultaneous Speech Translation Using Alignment-Based Chunking, IWSLT-research 2020 [arxiv]
  • Is 42 the Answer to Everything in Subtitling-oriented Speech Translation?, IWSLT-research 2020 [arxiv]
  • Adapting End-to-End Speech Recognition for Readable Subtitles, IWSLT-research 2020 [arxiv]
  • From Speech-to-Speech Translation to Automatic Dubbing, IWSLT-research 2020 [arxiv]
  • Joint translation and unit conversion for end-to-end localization (2020.Apr), IWSLT-research 2020, G. Dinu et al. [arxiv]

System paper

  • End-to-End Simultaneous Translation System for IWSLT2020 Using Modality Agnostic Meta-Learning, IWSLT-system 2020, H. Han et al. [paper] [code]
  • ON-TRAC Consortium for End-to-End and Simultaneous Speech Translation Challenge Tasks at IWSLT 2020, IWSLT-system 2020 [arxiv]
  • KIT’s IWSLT 2020 SLT Translation System, IWSLT-system 2020 [paper]
  • The University of Helsinki submission to the IWSLT2020 Offline Speech Translation Task, IWSLT-system 2020 [paper]
  • Start-Before-End and End-to-End: Neural Speech Translation by AppTek and RWTH Aachen University, IWSLT-system 2020 [paper]


  • Simultaneous Machine Translation with Visual Context (2020.Sep), EMNLP 2020, O. Caglayan et al. [arxiv]
  • Towards Multimodal Simultaneous Neural Machine Translation, WMT 2020, A. Imankulova et al. [arxiv]
  • Exploiting Multimodal Reinforcement Learning for Simultaneous Machine Translation, EACL 2021, J. Ive et al.


  • Prediction improves simultaneous neural machine translation, EMNLP 2018, A. Alinejad et al. [paper]
  • Learn to Use Future Information in Simultaneous Translation, X. Wu et al. [arxiv]
  • Speculative Beam Search for Simultaneous Translation (2019.Sep), EMNLP short 2019, R. Zheng et al. [arxiv]

Latency Metric

  • Thinking Slow about Latency Evaluation for Simultaneous Machine Translation (2019.May) 2019, C. Cherry et al. [arxiv]


  • Online Versus Offline NMT Quality: An In-depth Analysis on English-German and German-English (2020.Jun) 2020, M. Elbayad et al. [arxiv]